In examples of manual production, the wine and wine industry now combines complex processes to ensure high quality and efficient output.
In some cases, traditional approaches have been expanded or monitored more closely, while in others, improvements such as canning/bottling have been adopted. However, any approach that has been taken follows the development of gas-related hazards and the need to protect workers from the risk of exposure to toxic gases and asphyxiation.
Hazards in wineries and breweries include carbon dioxide from fermentation, chilling, sunshade and recall; Disinfectants such as ozone and sulfur dioxide for cleaning equipment; Argon and nitrogen are used as overlay gases to produce inert air;
Ammonia from refrigeration equipment; Methane from fuel for heating or lifting equipment; Carbon monoxide in exhaust gases and hydrogen sulphide may be present during waste disposal. Wineries and breweries with limited space need to monitor oxygen as well as handle specific gases.
With over 45 years of experience in gas detection and a network of trained distributors and service agents, supporting winery customers around the world who regularly use Crowcon equipment including most major brewing groups as well as large and independent wineries.
|Safety of explosive gases, toxic gases and hypoxia in breweries and beverages|
A – Beer production
Grinding, soaking, filtration and annealing
- The starting point of the beer is puree. Depending on the region and the brewed beer can be barley, wheat or rye. Seeds are soaked in water, drained and allowed to germinate, while keeping at a temperature that is not changed for almost two days. The temperature of the germinated seeds that are then dried depends on the required taste of the finished beer. The catch germination stage is converted into sugar to ensure a successful fermentation process. The dried particles are then ground and transferred to the mixer.
- In a paste mixer, the seeds are mixed with water to dissolve starch, sugar and enzymes. The temperature of the “paste” is raised, and it is mixed to convert the last of the starch into sugar. It is then pumped into a tunnel, where the liquid is compressed (lautering). The liquid (now called ‘wort’) is collected in a boiling kettle and boiled with hops and/or other ingredients to create the final flavor.
- During storage, natural cereals reduce the amount of oxygen and increase the amount of carbon dioxide. Silo yards and warehouses must have an atmosphere checked before workers enter to ensure safety. Silos are defined as limited spaces, and therefore workers should be trained to enter and carry suitable handheld gas detectors capable of monitoring TWA levels for toxic gases (e.g. CO2) as well as immediate alarms.
Fermentation, cooling, refrigeration
- The fermentation begins as soon as the yeast is added to the “cooled wart”. Here sugar from malt is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation tanks vary greatly and can be closed or opened depending on the variety of beers brewed.
- In general, alcohol will use fermented yeast and be warmly fermented with a temperature that is maintained throughout the process. The longer phase between different wines varies from 7 days to several months.
- When the fermentation is slow, the beer is cooled to the freezing point to settle yeast and unwanted proteins. The fermented beer is then filtered (if necessary) and cooled.
- Carbon dioxide is a toxic gas, which has a life-threatening effect, occurring only at 0.5% CO2. OSHA reflects this in the current standard list of 5000ppm (0.5% vol) as reaching 8-hour TWA levels. Concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm (10% volume) can be lethal. Because CO2 is completely odorless and colorless, there may be no signs of danger until it is too late.
- The tank is considered “enclosed space” and workers need to be fully trained before entering. The safety process must be in accordance with local regulations and usually a permit must be issued before entering this space.
- HVAC systems are usually supplied with natural gas and also use reallers for cooling cycles. Heating systems capable of creating carbon monoxide and ammonia are being used more frequently (via CFC and HCFC) to cool and cool operations.
- The gas storage area contains high-pressure cylinders of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide as well as gas generators that can produce nitrogen levels. Fixed gas detection heads are often installed to ensure the pressure cylinders do not leak, providing early warning of any potential problems for workers.
Separation and cooling
- “Hot wart” must then be separated; This is done in most industrial plants with several separation tanks including filtration through fine particles, whirlpools or centrifugal machines. At this time, the malt is still hot and must be cooled before yeast is added to support the fermentation process. Rapid cooling increases the quality of beer as well as minimizes the risk of contamination. A heat exchange sheet is often used, warming the water for use elsewhere during the final process. The final cooling phase usually consists of lowering the temperature below 0 degrees as well as dissolving oxygen into the liquid to restore natural yeast.
- The brewing process uses a large amount of water; Ordinary winery plants manage their water treatment, recycling water for use in the next batches of beer. Water treatment may include the use of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite. Water with a high organic content can also be used to produce valuable biogas gas.
- Ammonia is becoming the cooler of choice in many processing industries, including the production of beer. Ammonia is an efficient and cost-effective cooling environment. However it is very toxic at a very low level and is easy to catch fire at the volume level, therefore the system must be monitored for leakage and regularly maintained
- Ozone, Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide are heavier than air, making them one of the harder gases to detect. The use of Crowcon gas detectors is an effective way to detect gases in these environments.
The stage of bottling, canning or packing.
- The final stage, packing, is carried out at the brewery or outside the brewery depending on the size of each brewery. Finished beer is carefully pumped into bottles or kegs in oxygen-free air. Bottles are cleaned and washed with nitrogen, argon or carbon dioxide before closing to reduce the amount of beer contact with air.
- Some canned beers use a “widget tool” to put nitrogen into the beverage to improve quality and stability. During the canning process, the beer is heated, adding liquid nitrogen ensures it can be closed.
- Bottled beer is usually kept cold to maintain freshness. Heavy lifting equipment (e.g., forklifts) is used to move pallets into warehouses or to transport them for distribution and storage.
- The gas storage area contains high-pressure cylinders of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide as well as nitrogen-supply emit gas generators. Clean gases can also be generated in this area.Fixed gas detection heads are often installed to ensure the pressure cylinders do not leak, providing early warning of any potential problems for workers.
- Heavy lifting equipment can be supplied with fossil fuels (natural compressed air, oil gas or diesel) with the potential for emissions. Areas without sufficient ventilation need to detect adequate gas to improve occupational safety.
B – Wine production
Screening and grinding
- Once picked up, the grapes are arranged and the dirt is removed. Next, dry ice (carbon dioxide) in the refrigeration can be used to control the temperature of the grapes during harvesting and transportation. Sulphur dioxide is sometimes used as an antioxidant to inhibit the growth of mold before grinding. Carbon dioxide can be introduced to act as an inert layer of gas on the grapes, maintaining freshness.
- It is necessary to carry out monitoring of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide in the processing area to ensure a safe working air, especially when conducting initial processing. The use of portable gas detectors can monitor individual contact levels effectively. Due to the associated effects of these gases, placing fixed gas detectors is an important consideration, to warn workers before entering areas with hazardous gas levels.
- The production of red wine differs from white wine. In the case of red wine, the crushed grape is fermented with its shell, and then pressed. For white wine, the grapes are pressed after crushing separate the juice from the shell, the fermented juice. However, this is not the only difference. Red wine is usually fermented in ‘open’ barrels with the amount of carbon dioxide produced during fermentation acting as its own oxidation barrier. White wine is fermented in sealed containers to reduce oxidation.
- During oxygen fermentation can be supplemented to improve color stability and support fermentation by helping yeasts grow. It is very important to maintain the temperature of the mixture to ensure the correct rate of fermentation and color extraction; This is achieved with precise temperature control and ventilation. Sulphur dioxide can be used to prevent fermentation once the correct flavor has been achieved and nitrogen is given to take yeast out of the system.
- After the fermentation completes the liquid is transferred to the next stage, often using argon, nitrogen or carbon dioxide to reduce the possibility of oxidation. Removing the shell from the barrel is one of the most dangerous jobs at the winery;
- Carbon dioxide is a toxic gas, which has a life-threatening effect, occurring only at 0.5% CO2. OSHA reflects this in the current standard list of 5000ppm (0.5% vol) as reaching the 8-hour TWA alarm level. Concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm (10% volume) can be lethal. Because CO2 is completely odorless and colorless, there may be no signs of danger until it is too late.
- Fermentation vats are considered “enclosed spaces” and workers need to be fully trained before entering. Enclosed spaces are often defined as “a place that is significantly enclosed (although not always completely enclosed), and where serious injuries can occur from toxic substances or conditions in space or nearby (e.g., lack of oxygen)”. For the above reasons, there is a risk of an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide that causes a toxic hazard. Safety procedures must be in accordance with local regulations and permits are generally required before entering this space.
- HVAC systems are usually supplied with natural gas and also use reallers for cooling cycles. Heating systems capable of creating carbon monoxide and ammonia are being used more frequently (via CFC and HCFC) for cooling and refrigeration.
- The gas storage area contains high-pressure cylinders of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide as well as gas generators that emit nitrogen gas. Fixed gas detection heads are often installed to ensure the pressure cylinders do not leak, providing early warning of any potential problems for workers.
Ageing – Landing stage
- Wine is covered with an inert gas to reduce the likelihood of alcohol absorbing any dissolved oxygen. The casings are necessary to lower the new wine (young wine) to be quieter before use. Ozone is also used in some cases during landing as well as sulfur dioxide to ensure the barrel has been completely disinfected and inert (without oxygen). Alcohol is then pumped with nitrogen, carbon dioxide or argon, into the branches and then closed. Alcohol is stored at temperature controlled temperatures from 6 months to 3 years.
- The gas storage area may contain argon, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. Fixed gas detection heads are often installed to ensure pressure cylinders do not leak, thus providing early warning of any potential problems for workers. Inert air does not contain oxygen, which shows the risk of asphyxiation in treatment and storage areas.
- Strict hygiene requirements in the industrial environment of the winery can be difficult for any gas measuring product. The level of intrusion protection (IP) for a product is very important. IP65 provides comprehensive protection against dust as well as against low sprinklers and IP67 provides deep immersed tolerance in water, including water, wine or beer.
Separation, filtration and bottling
- After landing, the wine is cleaned and filtered. Remove unwanted suspended particles. Add a substance to clean the wine, improve stability and filter the impurities out of the wine. These activities eliminate the risk of bacterial damage and help make the wine brighter and more beautiful.
- The final stage in wine production, bottling, can be done at the winery or outside the large-scale bottling plant. Some wineries use external contract bottling houses, who have portable bottling equipment that is brought to the winery at the time of bottling.
- Bottles are rinsed and washed with nitrogen, argon or carbon dioxide before making to reduce alcohol exposure to air.
- After bottling, the wine is packed and stacked on the pallet. Heavy lifting equipment (e.g., forklifts) is used to move pallets into warehouses or to transport them for distribution and storage.
- The gas storage area may contain high-pressure cylinders of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide as well as nitrogen generator chambers. Fixed gas detection machines are often installed to ensure the pressure cylinders do not leak, providing early warning of any potential problems for workers.
- Heavy lifting equipment can be supplied with fossil fuels (natural compressed air, oil gas or diesel) with the potential for emissions. Areas without sufficient ventilation need to have adequate gas detection machines to improve occupational safety.
C – For both Alcohol and Beer # Delivery and Distribution
- After the wine is bottled and the beer is bombed, they must be taken to the store. Includes distribution companies, warehousing and internal breweries’.
- Beer and beverages use carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in distribution. The gases also help the beer to be preserved more and improve the quality and taste.
- Even if the beverage is ready for supply, the risk of gas-related hazards remains present. Participants in any activity in compressed air tank facilities may be exposed to increased CO2 or depleted oxygen levels (due to high nitrogen content).
- In some areas, the tunnel may have fixed CO2 detection equipment and/or O2 depletion detection equipment in place, most still do not recognize the inherent danger associated with the use and storage of these compressed air. Employers are responsible for caring for their workers, who regularly perform their duties (service, maintenance, delivery or sales). Providing portable gas detectors, capable of monitoring CO2 or CO2 and O2, can improve the safety of their work environment.
- In an age of growing legislation and the need to demonstrate a high level of workforce protection, available data and event record capabilities, and customer-focused asset management reports can directly help improve information visibility and simplify maintenance and correction activities.
trans by TESIN VIETNAM