Considered by many to be the industry that provides backbone to modern society, the steel industry continues to grow.
There are various processes used in the manufacture and manufacture of steel, each stage of the creation and use of gases of different potential hazards. Coke furnaces, combined furnaces, high furnaces, when operating also give rise to gases with a high degree of danger. Due to the large amount of water required during processing as well as large capacity requirements, water treatment and power plants are often part of steel facilities; They bring further gas hazards depending on the type of fuel or how it is handled.
Whether it’s a change in demand or geographical production or challenges brought about by energy or raw material costs, companies continue to develop their processes and factories to meet them.
Along with these changes, companies have also recognized the requirement to minimize downtime due to uns planned maintenance and protect workers from toxic or flammable hazards.
Crowcon and its network of trained and experienced distributors have provided gas detection equipment to most major steel companies in the world.
|Gas detection measurement in metallurgy, cast iron|
The process of firing and creating
- The forming process involves in combining iron ore particles into homables before they are taken to the sing oven. A spinning furnace running at temperatures up to 1325°C (2400°C) is used to form tablets that combine iron ore particles with bentonite (adhesives), limestone, anthracite and coke can also be added to improve the final properties of the tablets.
- The firing process involves insing the in combination of iron ore particles into the ‘cake’ before they are taken to the smele. A conveyor oven that heats iron ore with lime and coke to form a ‘cake’ is then divided into pieces.
- The process of firing and creating sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in processing and the environment is dusty. Smeles or furnaces are usually burned with gas, creating the need to detect flammable gases. Gas hazards also include non-flammable gases from other gas confrontations and oxygen depletes caused by combustion.
- Brown dust generated during this process requires a removable filter that can be replaced or cleaned regularly to ensure the gas can reach the sensor.
- Coal is converted into coke through a strong heating process, which produces a mixture of high levels of toxic gases and/or flammable carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This gas mixture is used as fuel in other parts of the plant when other potentially harmful by-products such as ammonia, naphtalene and benzol have been removed and collected. Coke is cooled and put in a high oven.
- Coke production also produces a large amount of wastewater due to the amount required during cooling. It may contain ammonia, phenol, cyanide, thiocyanat, chloride and sulfide components. This wastewater cleaning takes place at the same plant, and is often reused for processing.
- Experienced gas detector manufacturers in these environments also know the problems of hydrogen affecting carbon monoxide sensors and provide standard hydrogen filtration sensors for steel facilities.
- When considering the detection of gases in or around water treatment parts, other toxic gases may be present including ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Fixed gas measuring equipment capable of monitoring gases both during use and during storage should be located in these areas. Multi-target gas detectors capable of monitoring an individual’s exposure to toxic gases over time improve the level of personal safety provided – TWA (average time).
Power supply stage
- The steel production process requires a lot of electricity. Electricity provides energy and heat for steel plant operations. Due to the large demand for electricity, steel mills often have power plants in place, importantly to maintain the consuity of the power supply as well as recycle important emissions from coke plants and furnaces. These plants are responsible for receiving and storing emissions as well as carrying out cleaning processes to remove impurities before it can be used to create more value.
- Gas turbines are effectively used in the production of electricity to support steel mills, improve the overall economy as well as efficiently treat emissions in development.
- Flammable gas detectors are used to monitor distribution pipes for fuel used by gas turbines as well as during cleaning. Fixed probes are also required for storage tanks to monitor potentially hazardous leaks.
- Inert gases generated by the storage and transmission of exhaust gases (methane and/or hydrogen) make it important to monitor oxygen for employees working in and around the plant.
- Power stations use high voltage switches to help protect, control, and isolate electrical devices. They usually contain SF6 as an electric product. SF6 shows the potential hazard as well as potentially environmental hazards when SF6 leaks.
Training in the microwave
- Using coke as fuel, very high temperatures are obtained by compressing hot air in the oven. As well as iron ore and coke, limestone is added to help separate impurities from melted iron by combining with them to form a furnace slag liquid that can be removed from its surface. A large furnace produces a lot of hot, dusty, toxic and flammable gases including carbon monoxide with some hydrogen – dust is taken away and clean gas is stored for reuse or transported directly to the on-site power plant.
- Iron is transformed into steel by removing impurities, most commonly through BOS (Basic Oxygen Steel – BOS) process: Melted iron (‘hot metal’) is poured into an ovate steel transformer mounted on a rotating shaft so that it can be rotated. Cooling water is brought down with oxygen aeration, Oxygen in combination with carbon and other elements removes some impurities while adding lime that reacts with others to form slags. Carbon emits carbon monoxide, which is cleaned and re-used as fuel or burned. Nitrogen and argon can then be added for further refining before steel is passed for the production of sub-steel or continuous casting.
- Gas hazards include those that are associated with oxidation, carbon monoxide and the oxygen depleting effects of nitrogen and argon. Manufacturers of gas detection equipment experienced in these environments also know the problems of hydrogen affecting carbon monoxide sensors and provide standard hydrogen filtration sensors for steel facilities.
- Oxygen gas detectors provide environmental warnings as well as use infrared technology to detect hydrocarbon gases in inert air, all of which contribute to increased safety. The combination of both fixed and mobile monitoring including flammable gas detection, toxic gas and oxygen measurements can provide risk warnings across the region.
Stage of electric arc furnace (abbreviated EAF)
- Electric furnaces are used to produce special quality steel and non-alloy steel and as an effective way to recycle scrap, EAF can complete the tap-to-tap process within less than an hour.
- EAF also conducts refining operations to remove impurities such as phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, manganese, carbon and aluminum from steel. Dissolved gases are also in the melting phase including hydrogen and nitrogen. Oxygen is usually introduced at the end of melting so that oxide pollution makes them increase into slags (which are removed).
The gas detector is capable of monitoring oxygen during storage and use to improve safety around the processing area. Depending on the type of scrap used and the type of steel produced, toxic gases should be detected to monitor gases such as carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide.
- Steel is graded into several methods depending on the requirements of the steel type. These stages include stirring, shaking with argon or nitrogen gas and vacuum decontamination. These processes reduce unwanted gases such as sulfur and carbon to very low levels.
- Steel is transferred to a compacter when inserted into water-cooled molds to be frozen. When solid, it is cut into sheets and put into a hot oven to reheat to 1,300o. Once heated, it is rolled into strips or workpieces. These processes are at risk of oxygen loss, toxic sulfur or carbon emissions and flammable risks.
- Multiple sampling points, maintenance points, and compact checkpoints, requiring multiple air meters for multi-restricted spaces provide large and bright alarms when the gas level exceeds the alarm level determined at each location.
Second processing / forming
- The second processing stage (or forming) is responsible for receiving steel billet from the Steel plant. The workpieces are heated in the furnaces before they are loaded into the mold to be reproduced. Steel billet can be large or small.
- Since the workpiece must be re-heated to be formed the desired finished products, it is possible to produce gases throughout the process. These processes risk losing oxygen, toxic sulfur or carbon emissions as well as the risk of heating.
trans by TESIN VIETNAM